Workers Interacting with Other Workers
Increasingly, work in both manufacturing and services is being performed by teams. The degree of interaction may be as simple as one operator hading a another, or a complex as a cardiovascular surgical team consisting or doctor. nurse. an anesthesiologist. the
operator of the artificial heart machine. an X-ray technician, standby blood donors. and the pathologist (anJ perhaps a minister to pray a little).
To facilitate analysis of team efforts. an activity or a gang process chart is used to plot the activities of each individual on a time scale similar to that of the worker-machine chart. A gang process chart is usually employed to trace the interaction of a number of workers with machines of a specified operating cycle, to find the best combination of workers and machines. An activity chart is less restrictive and may be used to follow the interact.ion of
any group of operators. with or without equipment being involved. Such charts are often used to study and define each operator in an ongoing repetitive process, and they are extremely valuable in developing a standardized procedure for a specific task. Exhibit S LO.6, for example, shows an activity chart for a hospital's emergency routine in performing a tracheotomy (an operation for opening a patient's throat surgically to allow him or her to breathe). where detailed activity analysis is of major importance because any unnecessary delay could be fatal.