Unlike Deming and Juran, both of whom were trained initially as statisticians. Crosby was educated as an engineer and began his career in manufacturing. After working for several large companies, primarily in quality-related positions. he founded his own “Quality College” in Florida in 1979. Crosby’s philosophy, which is similar in some respects to Deming’s. states that any organization can reduce its total overall costs by improving the quality of its processes. In one of his first books, Crosby preached that “quality is free.” According to Crosby. the cost of providing poor-quality goods and services is significant. He estimated that the co, t of producing poor quality can run as high as 25 percent of revenues for manufacturing and 40 percent of operating expenses in service operations. Crosby also claim that companies that have successfully implemented quality programs can expect to reduce their costs of quality to less than 2.5 percent of sales.