Job design may be defined as the specification of the work activities for an individual or group within an organizational setting. Its objective i to develop work assignments that meet the requirements of the organization and the technology, and that satisfy the personal and individual requirements of the jobholder. The term job (in the context of non supervisory work) and the activities involved in it are defined as follows:
1. Micro motion: the smallest work activity involving such elementary movements as reaching, grasping, positioning. or releasing an object.
2. Element: Two or more micro motions, usually thought of as a more or less complete entity, such as picking up, transporting, and positioning an item.
3. Task: Two or more elements that comprise a complete activity. such as wiring a circuit board, sweeping a floor, or cutting a tree.
4. Job: A set of all the tasks that must be performed by a given worker. A job may consist of several tasks, such as typing, filing. and taking dictation (as in secretarial work) or it may consist of a single task such as attaching a wheel to a car (as in automobile assembly).
Job design is a complex function because of the variety of factors that enter into arriving at the ultimate job structure. Decisions must be made about who is to perform the job where it is to be performed and how and as we can see in Exhibit 10.2. each of these factors may have additional considerations.