Category Archives: Facility Decisions: Layouts

Fixed-Position Layout

Fixed-Position Layout

Examples of fixed-position layouts in service include

(a) an automobile repair shop (where all of the process such as brake repair oil change etc., typically take place in the  Same location)

(b) an operating room in a hospital (where the patient remains in a given location on the operating table). and (e) a table at a restaurant where all of the different courses in a meal are brought to the customer (and in some even prepared at the table in front of the customer).

Types of Service Layouts

Product Layout

A good service example of a product layout is a cafeteria line Where all of the various stations (for example, salads hot and  old entrees. deserts and beverages) are arranged in a specific order and customer visit each station a the: move through the line.

Types of Service Layouts

Types of Service Layouts

We use the three basic types of manufacturing facility layouts that were described earlier in this chapter as a framework for identifying the different types of layouts that exist in service operations. Process Layout The support services for an emergency room in a hospital offer a good.

example of a process layout with radiology blood analysis and the pharmacy each being located in a specific area of the hospital. Patients requiring any of these specific services therefore must go to the respective locations where these services are provided. The kitchen of a large restaurant also can be viewed a, a process layout. Here all of the desserts and breads are prepared in the bake shop fruits and vegetables are peeled. sliced and diced in the prep area and raw meats and seafood are prepared for cooking in the butcher shop. Even the cooking line often is subdivided by type of process with all of the frying taking place in one area broiling and roasting in another and sauteed dishes in a third.

Facility Layouts for Services

Facility Layouts for Services

The overall goal in designing a layout for a service facility from an operations perspective is to minimize travel time for workers and often also for customers when they are directly involved in the process. From a marketing perspective however  the goal is usually to maximize revenues. Frequently these two goals are in conflict with each other. It is therefore management's task to identify the trade-offs that exist in designing the layout taking both perspectives into consideration. For example, the prescription center in a pharmacy is usually located at the rear requiring customers to walk through the store. This encourages impulse purchases of nonprescription items which usually have higher profit margins.

Developing a GT Layout

Developing a GT Layout

Shifting from process layout to a GT cellular layout entails three staps:

1. Grouping parts into families that follow a comrn,?n sequence of operations, which requires developing and maintaining a computerized parts classification and coding system. This is often a major expense with such systems although many companies have developed short-cut procedures for identifying parts-families.

2. Identifying dominant flow patterns of parts-families as a basis for location or relocation of processes?

3. Physically grouping machines and processes into cells? Often some parts cannot be
associated with a family and specialized machinery cannot be placed in anyone cell
because of its general use. These unattached parts and machinery are placed in a
"remainder cell."?